Tag: ct scanner repair

Consideration when Buying A Linear Accelerator


Purchasing a new Linear Accelerator can be a very costly investment that can range between $1 million and upwards to over $5 million. This cost alone is not the only expected fees associated with this equipment since delivery charges and secondary equipment such as a simulator, treatment planning computer, the treatment room itself, and the compensation for the radiographers/ physicist salaries. There is a lot of options to consider when replacing or installing new radiotherapy equipment and a few helpful tips below may help make the decision process a little simpler.

The Resale Value

Before purchasing any new or refurbished linear accelerator, it is important to ask yourself the question “How much will my Linac system be worth if choosing to replace or upgrade it in the future?” The answer to this may affect your company’s ability to purchase equipment in the future so the best way to solve this is by three other factors. First is obsolescence, this factor will greatly impact the long-term maintenance of any equipment. As parts continue to get older, replacement parts will become more and more difficult to locate for obsolete equipment. This also will make service personal harder to find as well since they will not be as familiar with repairs on older machines. Research the manufacturing company and choose one that has been in business for a decent amount of time, If you feel the company will not be around in the next ten years it will most likely not have very good resale value.

Re-licensing Fees

When shopping for a new linear accelerator, if a machine requires new relicensing it will become more costly to a buyer hence making it less attractive for purchase. Providing the license on the equipment will increase the demand which will, in turn, make it have a higher resale value as well. Company’s such as Varian and Elekta have always had higher resale value because of the licensing fees/ software and relocation charges being less than their competitors.

Technology Reimbursements

The centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services utilize reimbursement rates to entice clinicians to accept the use of new, proven treatment for the future. For example, several years ago when CMS code 77421 was released, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) became widely accepted and hundreds of linear accelerators were upgraded, therefore. A linear accelerator that has the technology to benefit from higher reimbursement rates which certainly affect the price of a machine in the market of used equipment. Systems that use IMRT, IGRT, and CBCT technology will lead more than machines without these capabilities. The future can be a mystery when attempting to predict which technologies will be reimbursed in the following years but company’s such as Varian and Elekta have a long history of systems that have the possibility for upgrades which has helped them increase in value on used products.

As an independent LINAC service company, Acceletronics is dedicated to delivering the best equipment performance and services for linear accelerators and CT scanners across all major brands and models, as well as new and refurbished LINAC systems for sale.  More information can be found online at https://www.acceletronics.com/.



What is Equipment Relocation?


Linear accelerators and CT simulators are large, that’s obvious. Any business who has obtained an accelerator understands the headache of moving such a large and delicate machine to their offices. When moving offices or simply needing to move an accelerator from one place to another there are companies that have staff on hand who are specialized in moving this equipment so you the business owner do not have to worry about how it’s going to get done. These companies offer a range of services related to accelerator relocation so there should be a service to fit any needs a business may have.

Quality Moving

The companies that specialize in moving large equipment are specialized because of the talent on hand. These employees are specially trained to handle large equipment moving with ease and delicacy that these machines require and can do so with advanced logistics that other companies do not possess. With these logistics intact these companies can ensure your equipment is free from damage of any kind during the moving process and can move the equipment over a small area to even internationally. You’ve no-doubt seen videos of unqualified employees attempting to move large equipment and failing miserably causing thousands of dollars of damage to the company, so it pays tremendously to hire a professional relocation company that can handle the move in a professional and careful manner.

Installation         

Simply moving equipment is great, but what about those who need it and moved as well as installed in their offices? Equipment relocation isn’t just moving equipment from one place to another but also making sure the instrument is properly installed using the correct tools for the job. The machines usually involved in relocation such as linear accelerators are simply impossible to move on your own, so the crews at these relocation companies are able to use specific rigging materials to make sure the equipment is lifted and moved to right where it needs to be as carefully as can be. The process of installing the electrical components of these instruments is also handled by professional and experienced engineering specialist who can handle the job with the proper care and respect.

Testing

Once an instrument like a linear accelerator is moved to a new location and properly installed in the right spot in the office it still requires careful calibration before it can be used properly. The companies that supply relocation services also provide physics support related to calibration and testing. This completes the full suite of process and steps necessary when transporting a large instrument like a linear accelerator from one office to another and is a full suite that certain relocation companies can offer.

As an independent LINAC service company, Acceletronics is dedicated to delivering the best equipment performance and services for linear accelerators and CT scanners across all major brands and models, as well as new and refurbished LINAC systems for sale.  More information can be found online at https://www.acceletronics.com/.



Key Points to Consider for Linac Removal

Removing a 25,000 lb piece of machinery from a medical clinic or hospital, what could go wrong? It can be crucial to other surrounding equipment and to your facility to have safe and efficient removal services performed so that your facility will have peace of mind knowing that this process will be handled correctly. A few tips below will help this removal process go more smoothly and will get you to the goal of out with the out and in with the new more quickly.

Removal Path

To start, cleaning of any removable clutter is always overlooked and can become an obstacle that can be avoided. Measuring will be the next step to take when its time to start moving any type of equipment. A tape measurer will be your best friend since when it comes to moving high or low energy linacs, each have a minimum requirement for the number of inches required for room clearance.  Accurately measuring all building doors including the vault and outside door along the removal path is very important. Prior to the arrival or replacement equipment, a professional vendor will request a rig info sheet to be submitted to guarantee that there is no door frames or walls that will need to be removed. If the vendor does not ask about the measurements beforehand, this is a red flag that you should be looking for equipment elsewhere.

Safety Concerns

When transporting heavy equipment at any times, the safety of the removal team is of utmost importance. If the above-mentioned measurements are done inaccurately and realize that a vault door must be removed with late notice, this will pose a very big safety hazard. Depending on size, vault doors can easily weigh a few thousand pounds and unfortunate deaths have resulted when removal of these doors have been done incorrectly. When they doors need to be removed, it is critical that they are removed by professionals that have experience in the field.  Last minute decisions for vault door removal will also cut into extra expenses that was not part of the company budget so it again if very important for the measurements to be calculated right the first time. Proper liability insurance should be provided by your vendor when on site during the removal process as well.

Loading Space

Once you have the old equipment outside the next step is often overlooked as well. The loading area needs to have enough space in order to load the linear accelerator into trailer for transportation. Facilities will typically need to block off any side streets or parking spots to allow a safe loading area. If loading space is unavailable, the removal team will need to utilize a forklift of suitable size to lift and move machinery to the trailer manually.

Facility Jobs

No matter the size or details of removal that is performed, there will be responsibilities of the facility that will be requested. Generally, the removal team will ask local facility engineers, electricians, or plumbers to turn off the water or other power sources that are attached to the specific equipment that is being removed. This will protect the office building from having potentially dangerous live power to the area and helps to not disrupt any of the surrounding rooms that lighting and power may be connected to as well. Many times, the facility will manage and schedule the removal times so that it is occurring after hours or assist in security throughout the building.

As an independent LINAC service company, Acceletronics is dedicated to delivering the best equipment performance and services for linear accelerators and CT scanners across all major brands and models, as well as new and refurbished LINAC systems for sale.  More information can be found online at https://www.acceletronics.com/.

Improving LINAC Service Response Time


Linear accelerators and complex support devices are at the heart of today’s radiation oncology.  As technology continues to advance and change the way in which LINAC systems treat cancerous tumors, it becomes increasingly difficult to manage the way in which equipment maintenance, malfunction, and breakdowns are managed.  The strategies to manage quality, mitigate risk and analyze failures have improved to adjust to the changing needs of radiation oncology equipment. 

Manufacturers of oncology equipment add guidelines to ensure successful management of equipment maintenance including system monitoring and cyclical measurements of key functions verse pre-specified tolerances.  This information was previously documented by hand whereas in today’s environment data can be recorded, distributed company-wide, and stored electronically. IT plays an integral role in storing and managing the data which can then be integrated into the everyday workflow in the radiation oncology department.    

Work to cultivate IT clinical management solutions in the radiation department is often done in house working in collaboration with equipment vendors.  This process is an essential component in quality management of radiation oncology equipment services

Service and support of linear accelerators are a key element in quality management in the radiation oncology department.  In most facilities, radiation therapists will report all technical problems with the LINAC to a clinical medical physicist who then reports the events of the machine’s failure to the vendor’s dispatch center to schedule support.  When this call is made the therapist or physicist reporting the LINAC failure will provide the identification of the linear accelerator, the location of the machine, and a detailed report of the problem including what issues led up to the failure..

Depending on where the machine is located, the vendors dispatch center will provide information to equipment engineers at their technical support help desk.  Together the user and engineers will attempt to diagnosis the issue at hand and coordinate actions for repair. 

Facilities looking to improve the efficiency of support and service to linear accelerators when failure occurs can implement key changes in the overall process.  These procedure modifications include:

  • Lessen the number of steps involved in reporting the LINAC failure to the vendor’s support team.
  • Reduce duplication and surplus in the diffusion of information related to the linear accelerators’ failure.
  • Record events electronically for improvement and evaluation of delivering services related to LINAC maintenance and repairs.
  • Utilize remote support from vendor approved engineers that are familiar with the installed system and its maintenance and service history.

As an independent LINAC service company, Acceletronics is dedicated to delivering the best equipment performance and services for linear accelerators and CT scanners across all major brands and models, as well as new and refurbished LINAC systems for sale.  More information can be found online at https://www.acceletronics.com/.



3 Tips For Installing or Replacing a Linear Accelerator

New linear accelerators can cost a medical facility between 1 and 5 million dollars.  The expense of owning a LINAC does not stop once it has ben purchased.  There are items outside of the actual equipment purchase such as a simulator, training computers, treatment rooms, salaries, ongoing training, operation expenses, maintenance, repairs, and more.  The total cost of large scaled medical equipment is never one that should be underestimated.  Whether you are installing a brand new or refurbished linear accelerator, installing a LINAC for the first time, or replacing an existing one there are three tips the professionals at Acceletronics want to give you.

Step One – Plan, Plan, and Plan Some More

The installation planning process for a linear accelerator takes between six months to eight years.  The length of time for planning your project can span almost any length of time.

  • When planning new technology, you will first want to establish the technology that you need in order to treat patients.  What types of cases will you be treating?  Consider the options IMRT, IGRT, and so on.
  • If you are installing a linear accelerator in new construction, you will want to consider the constraints that come along with that.  What local permits do you need, do you have the proper power supply needed for this large scaled equipment, are there constraints that will limit your installation?  If you are renovating a space consider the rooms constraints, size, location of isocenter and so forth.
  • Create a timeline for major milestones.  When will the vault be completed, when are vendors scheduled to install computers?  When planning these things consider potential areas where conflict can occur and come up with a backup plan.
  • Once the goals are established, a budget is needed to acquire the new equipment.  Consider other aspects as well such as training, equipment needed to run the LINAC and treat patients, and the extra items that can be forgotten about when focusing on the large scaled purchase.

Step Two – Hire Based on Experience

When hiring a team of professionals, it is crucial that you hire experts.  Experts are needed for designing the vault, construction, providers of equipment and supplies, IT support, clinical implementation teams, and such.  Don’t trade cost for quality.  Sometimes a little bit more money now can save you a great deal of money later on down the road.  Ask for references when working with different vendors.  Hire only those vendors that understand the collaboration effort needed to install medical equipment such as CT Scanners and Linear Accelerators. 

Step Three – Commit to Quality

When buying a used or refurbished linear accelerator there is a three-step process that you should follow to ensure you get a machine that meets your needs and beyond.  These steps include: a review of the LINAC’s service history (look at major service events such as waveguide replacement), review the machine’s utilization and beam hours, and perform a physical inspection of the machine. 

As an independent LINAC service company, Acceletronics is dedicated to delivering the best equipment performance and services for linear accelerators and CT scanners across all major brands and models, as well as new and refurbished LINAC systems for sale.  More information can be found online at https://www.acceletronics.com/.

Treating Medical Conditions With Radiation Treatment

Radiation therapy is just one treatment used in the treatment of cancer.  Linear accelerators, LINAC, are often used to deliver radiation which destroys cancerous cells.  LINAC machines use high energy x-rays to deliver radiation to cancerous tumors.  This breaks down and destroys the cancer cells while trying to minimize the damage and exposure to the surrounding healthy cells.  Radiation therapy is used to shrink and destroy cancer to prevent it from spreading. 

Radiation treatment can vary a great deal depending on the type of cancer and where it is located.  Linear accelerators are just one type of machine used to administer radiation.  When a patient is diagnosed with cancer, your oncologist will work with a team of experts to determine what type of treatment is best for you depending on your cancer, its location, overall health, and medical history. 

Keep in mind when a cancer treatment plan is being created that it may involve more than one type of treatment including radiation therapy, surgery, and/or drug therapy.  The best-known type of drug therapy is chemotherapy.  This is a medication that moves through the bloodstream in order to attack cancer in the body. 

Your team of doctors, including your oncologist will prescribe a treatment plan for your unique cancer.  Often this includes a combination of treatments.  When a combination of treatments is prescribed to treat cancer, it is important to follow the order that your doctor specifies as there often is a specific order that treatment needs to be given in order to treat specific conditions. 

Cancer is not the only medical condition that is treated using radiation therapy.  Below we will highlight different diseases that respond well with radiation therapy.

  • Acoustic Neuroma

This is a tumor that is not cancerous.  It is produced when the body over produces Schwann cells.  When this occur the abundance of cells presses on the nerves that control hearing and balance within the inner ear. 

  • Arteriovenous Malformations

This occurs when a connection between the arteries and veins in the brain and spine are atypical.  When this happens there will be neurologic symptoms and bleeding. 

  • Bone Cancer

Bone cancer is a growth of abnormal cells in a bone.  These cells can either be cancerous or benign.

  • Brain Tumor

Like bone cancer a brain tumor may be either cancerous or non-cancerous.  A brain tumor occurs when there is an irregular development of tissue in the brain. 

  • Chondrosarcoma

This is a type of bone cancer that is malignant.  It most often is seen in the cartilage cells of the femur, arm, knee, pelvis, or spine.  Other areas that may be affected, but less often are areas like the ribs. 

  • Chordoma

Chordoma is very rare.  It grows slower than most cancerous tumors that occur along the spine from the bottom of the skull all the way down to the tailbone.

  • Ewing’s Sarcoma

This is a type of cancer that occur in soft tissue and bone.  It is often located in extremities and can involve muscles and soft tissue close to the site of a tumor.  It is also a cancer that spreads to areas throughout the body. 

  • Leukemia

Leukemia is a type of blood cancer that develops in bone marrow.  This type of cancer produces three major blood cells including platelets, white and red blood cells.

  • Meningioma

One type of tumor that cultivates from meninges, the protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord is Meningioma.  This is often a benign and slow-growing tumor.

  • Osteosarcoma

Most often occurring in children and young adults, this is a type of bone cancer that cultivates in the osteoblast cells which form the outer covering of bones.

  • Soft Tissue Sarcomas

This rare cancer is just one of many soft tissue sarcomas.  Soft tissue sarcomas, overall, are rare.

  • Trigeminal Neuralgia

This is a disorder in the nerves which causes pain in parts of the face that feel like a stabbing or electrical shock like pain.

There are two main types of radiation therapy that are used in treatment including external and internal radiation.  External radiation is delivered using a LINAC.  This is a machine that gives treatment outside of the body by moving around it without touching the patient.  External radiation using a linear accelerator causes patients no pain and cannot be felt during treatment. Internal radiation, brachytherapy, is radiation therapy that is used to treat certain gynecological and prostate cancers.

Information on linear accelerators, new and refurbished or parts for maintenance and repair can be found at https://www.acceletronics.com/ and https://radparts.com/.

Are Beam Hours Important When Purchasing A Used LINAC?

Buying used and refurbished linear accelerators can save medical facilities a great deal of money.  This is fairly critical when it comes to the limited budgets that growing healthcare centers face.  The question most often asked is about the HV (high voltage) hours, beam hours, and how important their role is in determining the wear and tear of a LINAC. 

Buying used and refurbished linear accelerators can save medical facilities a great deal of money.  This is fairly critical when it comes to the limited budgets that growing healthcare centers face.  The question most often asked is about the HV (high voltage) hours, beam hours, and how important their role is in determining the wear and tear of a LINAC

The most universal analogy comes down to the mileage of a used vehicle, the more miles usually means more wear and tear.  The higher the mileage, the less you should expect the resale value to be.  Beam hours are very similar.  Beam hours are equivalent to the time that the beam has been in use.  Thus, higher HV hours often means that these machines will be priced lower than LINACS with lower beam hours.  This of course assumes all other things are equal.

In reality a dozen factors go into determining the price facilities will pay when purchasing a used linear accelerator.  These include factors such as manufacturer, age of LINAC, updates to software/technology, and upgrades to the machine.  The chart below offers a reasonable explanation to what facilities should expect in regard to beam hours.

Expected Time Until Machine Replacement/Major Refurbishment
5 years 10 years 15 years
Patients Seen Per Day 10+ 2000 Beam Hours 1500 Beam Hours 1000 Beam Hours
<10 3000 Beam Hours 2500 Beam Hours 2000 Beam Hours

On the top you will see a number that reflects the years a used machine is expected to be in place at the new facility.  When a facility is getting started, doesn’t expect to see a lot of patients, and expects to have a higher revenue to purchase equipment in the next couple of years a used LINAC with higher beam hours is acceptable to be purchased.   However, if this same facility hopes to hold onto the machine for an extended period of time or expects to see a high number of patients, they should re-evaluate the number of acceptable beam hours that can be on a used LINAC. 

Situation: A health care center looking into adding a cancer treatment center to an already booming facility.  They are expecting that as they make available this new treatment option that their revenue will increase.  They also expect that as patients become aware of the option for treatment the number of patients, they can expect to see should be higher than they are to begin with.  They want to purchase a LINAC without having to replace it for about 10 years.  What amount of beam hours should they be looking for on a used LINAC? 

This facility, because they are assuming, they will see a high number of patients for treatment as the word spreads that they are offering LINAC treatment should assume that in time they will be seeing more than 10 patients a day.  Even if they start out slow at 5 patients a day now, it is assumed that they will be treating upwards of 15 or more eventually which will average out.  Because they want the equipment to last at least 10 years this facility should only be looking at LINAC systems with between 1000-1500 used beam hours anything with more than that will not serve the purpose for the volume of patients they are expecting or the years that they wish to use this piece of medical equipment.

Another thing a facility needs to consider is how often IMRT and VMAT treatment will be used.  These two types of treatment options consumer more beam hours.   This should be considered when looking into a used LINAC.   

This illustration should be used only as a guideline.   With proper, regular maintenance, servicing, and parts replacement, used/pre-owned linear accelerators can last for years even with a high number of beam hours. 

As an independent LINAC service company, Acceletronics is dedicated to delivering the best equipment performance and services for linear accelerators and CT scanners across all major brands and models, as well as new and refurbished LINAC systems for sale.  More information can be found online at https://www.acceletronics.com/.

Another thing a facility needs to consider is how often IMRT and VMAT treatment will be used.  These two types of treatment options consumer more beam hours.   This should be considered when looking into a used LINAC.   

This illustration should be used only as a guideline.   With proper, regular maintenance, servicing, and parts replacement, used/pre-owned linear accelerators can last for years even with a high number of beam hours. 

As an independent LINAC service company, Acceletronics is dedicated to delivering the best equipment performance and services for linear accelerators and CT scanners across all major brands and models, as well as new and refurbished LINAC systems for sale.  More information can be found online at https://www.acceletronics.com/.

Fighting Cancer With External Radiotherapy

There are several questions that come along with a cancer diagnosis. One of the first questions that patients ask is regarding the treatment of their newly diagnosed cancer.  Patients want to know how they are going to rid their body of cancer.  The answer most often, external radiotherapy.

External radiation, radiotherapy is treatment of cancer using a machine known as a linear accelerator to directly aim radiation beams to the cancerous tumors from outside the body.  These beams are meant to shrink and/or destroy the cancerous tumor without harming the healthy tissue surrounding it.  This is different from internal radiotherapy where radiation is delivered to the cancerous tumor within the body.

Radiotherapy works through a process of damaging the DNA that exists within the cancer cells.  A patient’s personal DNA, which is genetic, is the code that controls how a patient’s body will behave during treatment.

Before a patient starts treatment their team of experts will create a plan and introduce it to the patient.  It will include several elements including the short and long terms side effects of radiation.  Most side effects are short terms and will disappear with medication and time. 

Radiation therapy begins with a wide range of tests.  These often include:

  • X-Rays
  • CT Scans
  • MRI’s
  • PET Scans

These scans and images will allow experts to develop a treatment plan that allows the highest dose of radiation to the cancer while trying to reduce the effects to the healthy tissues surrounding it.

When you are set to receive external radiotherapy you will have treatment in a radiotherapy department.  Radiotherapy machines are large and can vary.  The most common machine in delivering radiation is known as a linear accelerator, LINAC.  A linear accelerator uses an electricity to create the beams of radiation.  Patients will not feel the radiation that a LINAC gives off. There are possible side effects however these are rare. 

Radiation therapy works because it can treat the cancerous cells and the bordering healthy tissues without harm.  A high dose of therapy is given directly to the cancer and lower dose to the surrounding tissues.

Radiation is delivered in individual fractions that are smaller than the full dose.  This ensures that the healthy cells surrounding the cancer to recover between treatments.  Patients will have what is known as a series of smaller dose treatments which is known as radiotherapy fractions.

Radiotherapy is intended to relieve the symptoms of cancer including pain.  This is known as a type of palliative radiotherapy, fewer fractions and sometimes just one.  The radiotherapy dose with each radiotherapy fraction is larger but there are fewer fractions.  Overall the radiotherapy dose is lower.  Palliative treatment has a decrease in side effects and is used as a cure for cancer. 

As an independent LINAC service company, Acceletronics is dedicated to delivering the best equipment performance and services for linear accelerators and CT scanners across all major brands and models, as well as new and refurbished LINAC systems for sale.  More information can be found online at https://www.acceletronics.com/.

Radiation Therapy 101


There is a lot of information on radiation therapy online.  The process of delivering radiation isn’t exactly the same between facilities however it’s similar.  In this installment we will look into radiation therapy generically to provide a general overview. 

Methods For Treatment

There are a number of ways to treat cancer with radiation; the method used depends on the nature and position of your cancer.  The most prevalent method of radiation is known as external beam therapy.  This is often done using a linear accelerator from the outside of the body directing radiation to the tumor. 

Radiation therapy is known to affect both cancerous and normal cells.  Radiation has a greater effect on cancerous cells.  Treatment is given at the highest dose possible, within a safe limit, to kill cancerous cells without causing damage to normal, healthy cells.  If the goal is to reduce the size of the tumor in order to relieve symptoms or to shrink the tumor for surgery, low dosages are often used.

Radiation Professionals

Radiation therapy is planned out by a specialist cancer doctor known as a radiation oncologist.  Then radiation is delivered by a radiation therapist.  A team of specialists including nurses, health care assistants, counselors, and dieticians will work together to ensure the best possible outcome for your treatment. 

There are many benefits included in how radiation treatment is planned.  Each patient has a unique treatment plan that is designed to meet each patient’s particular need.  During the initial visit a course of treatment will be planned.  This is done using simulators, x-rays, and scans to pinpoint the tumor.  The skin will be marked to define the treatment area. 

Life With Treatments

Most individuals receiving radiation therapy will not need to stay overnight in a hospital after receiving radiation.  Therapy is done on an outpatient need unless your radiation oncologist determines that treatment would be more effective if done while admitted.

Patients are allowed to continue life as normal during their radiation treatment.  It should not cause too much interruption to your day, in fact it should be looked at as another daily routine activity.  Radiation is given using a linear accelerator which works by delivering radiation from the outside through your skin.  Patients receiving treatment lay on a treatment couch and are asked to remain completely still.

Radiation oncologists will determine the length of treatment needed when first evaluating your situation.  The course of treatment can last anywhere from a week to six and can be performed on a weekly or daily basis.  This will depend on a number of factors including the area that is being treated, the aim of the treatment, and more. Each session of radiation varies depending on the machine used.  Most sessions last between five and fifteen minutes.

As an independent LINAC service company, Acceletronics is dedicated to delivering the best equipment performance and services for linear accelerators and CT scanners across all major brands and models, as well as new and refurbished LINAC systems for sale.  More information can be found online at https://www.acceletronics.com/.



A Sampling of Different LINAC Components and What They Do


A drive stand is a large part of a linear accelerator.  It is a cabinet in the shape of a rectangle that is attached to the floor within the treatment room.  The horizontal axis bearings that the gantry rotates on are positioned within the drive stand.

Components Within the Drive Stand

  • Klystron or Magnetron
  • RF Waveguide
  • Circulator
  • Cooling Water System

Klystron:

A Klystron is responsible for the microwave power that is used to accelerator the electrons.  This process occurs through intensification of present RF (Radio Frequency) electromagnetic waves.  The basic description of the operation of a Klystron is that it is a RF amplifier. A Klystron is often chosen for LINAC needing larger amounts of electron energy.

Magnetron:

A magnetron can be used in place of a Klystron.  A Magnetron is an electron tube that is responsible for providing the microwave power to accelerator electrons. A Magnetron is often chosen for LINAC needing smaller amounts of electron energy such as 4 MeV to 6 MeV LINAC.

RF Waveguide:

The structure in which the microwave powered RF electromagnetic waves are accelerated from the Klystron or Magnetron.

Circulator:

The circulator connects the Klystron or Magnetron to the RF Waveguide.

Cooling Water System:

A cooling system is in place to prevent overheating.  It creates a stable temperature environment within the Drive Stand and Gantry.

A gantry rotates three hundred and sixty degrees around a single point.  It works by directing the radiation beam from the LINAC to the tumor without moving the patient. 

Components Within the Gantry

  • Electron Gun
  • Accelerator Structure
  • Treatment Head

Treatment Head:

The treatment head of a linear accelerator encompass the components that shape and monitor the radiation beam.  These components include bending magnet, collimator, ion chambers, tray slots, wedges, blocks, and compensators.

Modulator Cabinet:

The modulator cabinet is the loudest components of a linear accelerator.  This component is located within the radiation treatment room.  The modulator cabinet includes a fan control, auxiliary power distribution system, and a primary power distribution system.  The fan control is used to cool off the power distribution systems.  The power distribution systems include the emergency off button to shut down the power to the LINAC.

Bending Magnet:

A bending magnet is a component of a LINAC that changes the direction of the beam down towards the patient.  It bends the beam towards the target and produces different paths for the beam for different energy needs. 

As an independent LINAC service company, Acceletronics is dedicated to delivering the best equipment performance and services for linear accelerators and CT scanners across all major brands and models, as well as new and refurbished LINAC systems for sale.  More information can be found online at https://www.acceletronics.com/.