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Controversy Surrounding the Collection of Fetal Bovine Serum

Bovine is an animal that is related to the cattle group including cows, heifer, bull, bullock, calf, ox, or bison.  Fetal bovine serum, also known as fetal calf serum, is harvested from a bovine fetus taken from a pregnant cow during slaughter by means of a cardiac puncture without any form of anesthesia.  Fetal bovine serum is a blood product that is widely used in laboratories to promote growth medium, including biotechnology research, vaccine production, cloning and in vitro fertilization.

The Importance of Fetal Bovine Serum

We can thank fetal bovine serum, FBS, for its latest role in creating a more sustainable product that does not require the hassle and waste of cattle production.  A plan-based food company has recently made public its plans to bring lab-grown meat made from the blood of cow fetuses into circulation soon.

Aside from the moral concern surrounding the collection of fetal bovine serum, because needless to say that the fetus, which remains alive during the process to ensure blood quality, has a needle inserted into its heart, there are several scientific and technical problems that exist now regarding the application of fetal bovine serum in cell culture.

While the extraction process may seem inhumane, animal biologicals have been meticulously tested by pharmaceutical companies as sources of drugs to the modern day medical science and even used in the testing of drugs, vaccines, various biologics, and medical devices.

Why Use Fetal Bovine Serum?

Fetal bovine serum is commonly used because of its high content of embryonic growth promoting factors, but as a matter of good research practices, some scientists and researchers have questioned the potential suffering caused to the calf during the extraction process of harvesting of blood from the bovine fetus and are now looking for other ways to develop serum-free alternatives.

It is estimated that around 700,000 liters of fetal bovine serum were sold in 2008 to collectors, manufacturers, and end users who belong to the International Serum Industry Association that prides itself on the safety and safe use of serum and animal biologicals.

This would obviously be a hard pill to swallow for many animal welfare enthusiasts because when animal testing is done to support bids for medical products regulated by FDA, manufacturers, or sponsors are required to follow FDA’s regulation whether it’s a frowned up process or not.

A Positive Look On The Research

Looking at this issue on a positive note, animal testing has proven beneficial not only in promoting very important research programs but also in saving countless lives. Research shows that bovine fetus serum is taken from pregnant cows which have been sent to the slaughter house for reasons such as crippling lameness or from the simple fact that they are bred for their beef purposes.

The cardiac puncture process used to harvest bovine fetus serum, which is performed by inserting a needle between the ribs directly into the heart of anaesthetized fetus, may seem inhumane, but it is primarily used because it minimizes the risk of serum contaminations with micro-organisms from the fetus itself, and its environment. The calf is then quickly removed and cleaned to live a healthy life.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

Research Involving Animal Serum

Animal testing has been an integral part of medicine to see how a given medical procedure will behave in the animal before carrying it out on humans. Although the application of research on the human is under strict control requiring high-level committee approval, humans as the test subject in biological research is a practice towards finding lasting solutions to human-related diseases and ailment since the beginning of quests into animal-related health solutions.

What is animal research?

Animal research defined is the research carried out, either to perform research for the benefits of humans or animals to understand the basic biology, or to understand basic biological nature of the targeted animal subject.

What is the purpose of animal research?

The purpose of animal research, therefore, stems from the need to find life-enhancing medical answers to human and animal medical issues to develop and understand the effect of chemicals on humans about tackling health challenges. Animal biological research material looks into new ways to understand diseases and how to carefully regulate the use of serum, e.g., monkey serum, in the control of human ailments.

One of the steps scientists take to carry out research involving animal is to identify the target part of the body to receive the serum; this is often a protein where the new medicine will work. The designated target area in the tissues, cells, animals, and human then studied to understand how the application of such research material will perform on such part of the animal.

Who performs animal research?

University health centers and a wide range of medical, scientific and pharmaceutical organizations and biotechnology companies and several other health and medical research groups and government are involved in carrying out research involving animals. The objective of such research will agree with what was discussed earlier in this article.

The use of animal biological research material such as monkey serum and others including microbes, cells, recombinant DNA, biological fluids, biological toxins, etc. on human and animal subjects for research purposes must get approval from the appropriate committee before application. This is because the oversight body has ethical obligations of ensuring the use of animal subjects in research is done responsibly. Therefore, there are established procedures in which animal biological research material are treated and identified in the approval appendixes to show the intended purpose before they are used.

Therefore, all teaching exercises and research studies relating to the use of biological materials including human cell lines, recombinant DNA technologies, microorganisms, human embryonic stem cells, viral vectors, viruses, and nano-particle based nucleic acid or drug delivery systems require approval from the relevant approving body before such test or research can commence. The purpose here is to protect animals and humans who are deemed to enjoy inalienable rights, but their approval as a research subject is done for the life-enhancing need to protect the majority of animals and humans whose lives may be endangered if such research is not approved to find best and lasting solutions to potential medical problems.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

Ethical Considerations on Using Human Biologicals in Research

Human whole blood is a combination of human red blood cells (RBCs), various other cells, and plasma. For various experiments and research projects, these human biologicals are needed in order to come up with the research objectives and to provide a solution for any problem that is prevailing or that concerns the human body in general.  However, no matter how much important is any research. There are ethical issues that need to be addressed before going further into the research.

Why are these considerations important?

Ethical considerations govern the process and are needed for the betterment of the research and of the society as well. These considerations are important because they allow us to do something that is right and use our resources for the better tomorrow of the human race. There have been many mishaps in the past where researchers were not bound to follow these ethical rules and as a result, they committed some serious moral crimes.

The benefit of ethics is to teach every researcher that the value of an animal, human being or its biologicals is far greater than any experiment.

There are other benefits also.

  • Ethical considerations promote healthy experimentations where the researchers can find moral satisfaction.
  • Researchers governed by these rules are always supported by the general masses.
  • The test subjects involved find collaborating with each other fruitful and easy.
  • The research can be further extended into the future without a problem.

Why was there a need for such considerations?

The need for such considerations came because of the unethical experiments that took place in the past. The researchers such as the Tuskegee Experiment which used around 600 men who had contracted syphilis; Milgram’s Obedience Experiment which was abusive to the psychology of the test subjects; and Zimbardo’s Prison Experiment which led the subjects to violence and dangerous behavior are the reasons we have these ethical rules today.

How are they implemented?

One of the organizations which implement the ethics is National Commission for Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Also, the Office for Human Research Protections is also doing a good job in preserving the ethics.

In numerous colleges and universities, certain communities like Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are formed to check if the ethical codes are being applied.

What are the considerations?

Proper issues and considerations are well addressed in the UniSA online ethics system.

According to them, these considerations are:

  • The research that is being done should have value for the humans.
  • No researcher should expose his health to any kind of harm in the research.
  • The subjects’ consent should be the top priority.
  • The data or the results of the research should be handled with confidentiality.

The human biologicals of the human whole blood, only the human red blood cells, or any other biologicals should be treated under these ethical considerations at all cost not just for the health of the research but also for that of the humans in general.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

 

The Research Process Involving Human and Animal Biologicals

What Are Biologicals?

Biologicals can be defined as pharmacological products utilized in healthcare research, diagnosis and prevention for treatment of diseases and observation of change in behavior of several different cells under different circumstances, when they come in come in contact with various biological agents. Biologicals are gathered from live cells or tissues like sera, vaccine, recombinant products, etc. and are used for potential therapeutic, diagnostics and research applications.

Medical and healthcare research, be it on animals or humans, requires the utilization of biologicals. Biologicals can be originated from animals such as animal blood, animal plasma, animal serum and animal tissues. Animal biological products for research purposes can be obtained from a wide range of animal species. Although, the human biological specimens such as human serum, human whole blood, etc., that used in research, originate from human bodies but are no longer a part of a living body. Human biologicals specimens and animal biological materials are at the core of basic research. Recently, a lot of work is being done around human and animal biologicals due to the enhanced growth rate that they provide for various cell culture mediums.

Use of Biologicals for Research Purposes:

Biological research encompasses several individual yet related, contained yet diverse fields of experimental biology, such as biotechnology, cell biology, cancer, evolutionary biology, genetics, genomics, immunology, microbiology, molecular biology, plant biology, physiology, stem cell research and systems biology. Whatever the subject of research, biologicals are essential for carrying out all sorts of biological phenomena.

Processes That Utilize Biologicals:

There can be several processes involved when it comes to biological research, for instance;

  • Creating new functions for proteins or RNA by manipulating the approach for choosing molecules with the same properties from a varied population.
  • The integration of cells into organs and tissues by medium and indicating molecules.
  • The Study of individual cells’ processes. This would include cell division, signal transduction and motility, organelle inheritance and biogenesis.
  • Studying the genetic, biochemical and molecular biological systems available for microorganisms so as to make them achieve particular desired ends.
  • Understanding the use of different molecular architectures to perform chemical reactions that are central to life.
  • Identifying molecular mechanisms underlying stem cell renewal and differentiation programs.
  • Investigating the roles of stem cells in regeneration along with the potential of stem cells for disease modeling and regenerative medicine.

We, at Innovative Research, realize how important it is to understand the value of time that can be saved in the transfer of biological materials such as animal serum, animal plasma, human blood, and more. Therefore, we provide you with best quality human biological research products that work perfectly with all cell cultures, their processing and manufacturing, by promoting and enhancing the cell growth rate. Along with human biological research products, we are also provider of animal biological research products. At Innovative Research, we always have fresh stock available and ready to be shipped to you as soon as you place your order. More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

 

The Significance of Harvesting Fetal Bovine Serum in Animal Biologicals

FBS, otherwise known as, Fetal Bovine Serum is fetal serum from a calf and is blood that is fractioned and remains once the blood is naturally coagulated and separated from the red blood cells by centrifugation. Fetal bovine serum is a product that is utilized in laboratories for research purposes. It is a blood product which surpasses cell culture testing standards and, therefore, is extensively used to promote growth medium.

First Step in Process

FBS is a dairy industry by-product. Just like the majority of other animal serum utilized in cell culture, Fetal Bovine Serum, is created from blood collected from commercial slaughterhouses. The first step of FBS production is the harvesting of blood from a bovine fetus with the help of a closed and isolated selection system. A cardiac puncture is performed on a calf’s fetus during slaughter and the blood is drawn from the bovine fetus after the fetus is removed from cow that has been killed. The blood is refrigerated so that it will clot.

Step 2- Filtration

A process known as centrifuge is then utilized to remove the fibrin clot and the remaining blood cells from the clear yellow (straw) colored serum and, finally, the clear serum is separated from the slotted blood cells. The second step involves filtration which employs a filtration chain with triple sterile 0.1 micrometer membrane filters. After being processed, the sterilized fetal bovine serum is subjected to strict quality control testing by a reputable commercial serum supplier. If the serum clears the quality control testing, it is supplied with a detailed Certificate of Analysis.

Significance of Fetal Bovine Serum

FBS is the most commonly used serum-supplement for the in-vitro cell culture of multi-cell organisms. The reason behind its extensive use is the serum’s low level of antibodies and its high content of embryonic growth promoting factors, which helps the serum to develop versatility in various cell culture applications. There are so many fields in which the cell culture medium growth is considered of great importance, like biotechnology, vaccine production, cloning and in-vitro fertilization. FBS when used in proper concentrations can satisfy specific metabolic requirements for the culture of cells and help it grow because of its high content of hormones, carrier proteins and macromolecular proteins. The embryonic stem cells are transferred, by FBS, into the culture medium which leads to growth of the cells.

Moreover, many vaccines available in the market today are produced using FBS for cell culture growth medium. For instance vaccines that protect against viruses utilize fetal bovine serum. Recently, several experiments are being conducted in an attempt to clone animal tissues and within the field of biotechnology; FBS is often employed in these experiments.

You will find that FBS is offered by several manufacturers in the market, and since cell growth in in-vitro is highly sensitive, customers prefer to check specific batches to ascertain for aptness for their specific cell culture under research. Here, at Innovative Research, we make sure that we provide you with only the highest quality fetal bovine serum and other products that you may need for research purposes. We ensure that we price our products affordably, without compromising on quality.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

The Importance of Human Serum

The human blood is comprised of several important parts all with different purposes. Human blood is made up of plasma, human serum, red blood cells and white blood cells. Red blood cells are the cells that carry oxygen to all parts in the body while white blood cells are the cells that fight against diseases and foreign bodies.

Plasma and human serum are similar but the greatest difference is the clotting factors. Fibrinogen is a substance that is essential for blood clotting to take place. When human serum and plasma are separated from the blood, plasma retains the fibrinogen element while human serum constitutes the part of blood without fibrinogen.

Human serum thus constitutes water which is dissolved with hormones, minerals, proteins and carbon dioxide. Human serum is an important source of electrolytes.

Why is human blood split up?

When an individual donates blood, this blood is separated into different parts so that it can be given to different patients with specific needs. Blood is separated into red blood cells, white blood cells and proteins. Blood proteins constitute serum albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, and plasma. For instance, if a patient is suffering from liver failure or has problems with blood clotting, he may receive blood plasma which has clotting factors. The human serum is the remainder of blood after the clotting factors of fibrinogen have been removed and it contains proteins such as albumin and globulins.

Functions of human serum

The human serum is a circulating carrier of exogenous and endogenous liquids in the blood. It allows substances to stick to the molecules within the serum and be buried within it. Human serum thus helps in the transportation of fatty acids and thyroid hormones which act on most of the cells found in the body.

Thyroid hormones are essential to the proper development and functioning of the body because they help to regulate bone growth and maturation, carry out protein synthesis and increase the body’s basal metabolic rate. Human serum also helps transport other hormones which are fat soluble.

Due to its unique role as a circulating carrier, human serum is used in the protein binding of many drugs to facilitate drug distribution within the body. Human serum is used to distribute antibiotics in the body and albumin allows the curable substances in the antibiotics to be bind and carried out throughout the body.

The human off-the-clot serum is the serum that has been allowed to coagulate naturally after collection and has not been exposed to any anticoagulants. The human off-the-clot serum is ideal for metabolic studies because it is available in the original transfer packs straight from individual donors.

Human AB serum is collected from type AB donors and it lacks antibodies against blood type A and B antigens. Human AB serum is used in cell therapy applications and transplantation and tissue engineering.

Human complement serum is a complex mixture of serum proteins which are activated when antibodies in an immune animal interact with corresponding antigens. Human complement serum is used for in vitro research only and biocompatibility experiments.

Innovative Research

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

Xenotransplantation and the Future of Medicine

Xenotransplantation is a concept which originated a century back. It involves the transport of animal tissues and organs into human beings if there is need to replace a certain organ or to cure a disease. Back then it was considered morally provocative to commit such scientific experiments but now this practice is more in process.

Nowadays, it is considered to be an ‘efficient method’ to solve the critical problem of organ unavailability. Patients today need a considerate amount of organ Transplantations, kidney being the highest; adding to the list are Liver, Heart, Lungs, and Brain.

The Inadequate Availability of Human Donors

  • One human can save up to 8 lives but the person has to be dead in order to donate.
  • Not everyone decides to donate and most importantly not everybody is healthy enough to give their organs. This challenge creates a huge problem and it is one of the major concerns in the field of contemporary medicine.
  • The department of health faces a grave challenge to tackle the issue of organ failure which is not a big problem if an organ is present beforehand to replace the damaged one.

The Background of Xenotransplantation

The demand for animal tissues and organs is increasing day by day. Lately, a few experiments have been carried out in the US and Europe. These trials are largely used for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease using Pig fetal neural cells. A similar action was being processed in New Zealand, which, after some altercations is now being conducted in Mexico.

The First Successful Transplantation

Xenotransplantation started in 1963 with the successful transplantation of a chimpanzee kidney into thirteen humans. Only one out of the 13 patients survived for almost nine months and died of a different cause. These kinds of experiments have been conducted largely over the past 50 years and all have received mixed outcomes.

Obstacles circling Xenotransplantation

There were some key obstacles that came to light during the research and experimentation. Below are a vast number of challenges that include infectious disease dangers and the requirement of monitoring for longer periods of time.

  1. Organs of Primates

Animal tissues of Primates are eluded for these kinds of trials to avoid the risk of viruses, the reason being their close relationship to human anatomy.

  1. Failure to Recognize Animal Tissue

The main obstacle founded during animal biological research was that human body refused to recognize animal tissues and attacked them, considering them as ‘foreign’ and dangerous.

  1. No Trivial Recovery

Another concern is when operated; the human body did not heal completely and in some cases showed little signs of significant success.

  1. Campaigns against Xenotransplantation

Beyond all this, animal activists are always in front to raise their voice against using animals for human organ failure treatment.

Advantages of Xenotransplantation

According to Animal Biological Research, a large population of people ignores the fact that there is plenty of uses and advantages of inserting animal tissues or organs. Apart from treating organ failure, it can be used to cure diabetes and permanently eliminating some life-threatening diseases.

Xenotransplantation as a Dire Necessity

Modern medicine needs to expand the possibility of using Animal tissues as a source of transplantation because with changing times, it is going to become a pivotal need. With a limited number of human donors and Healthy organs, the practice of using animal tissues will soon become the first priority of most medical personnel.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

What Do Researchers Use Animal and Human Cell Cultures for in Research?

Both human and animal cells are important for research but many people may not know the uses of these cell cultures. To get an idea of their specific functions in research, these are the potential uses and studies.

Human Cell Cultures

The reason why human cells are used for research and testing is that they are more useful than animal tests when it comes to understanding human diseases and biology. Cell cultures from humans can be used to screen cancer treatments, test drugs, and even grow specific cells. The primary advantage of human cell cultures is that it allows researchers to simply a system or disease and focus on a small number of variables.

One example of human cell cultures and their use is studying cancer. Researchers can harvest cells from living or deceased donors who have developed cancer and see how those specific cancer cells grow, how the cells react to certain treatments, fuel sources for cells, and many other uses. Human cells are used to understand physiology and disease as well as a controlled early way to study treatments for specific diseases and conditions on a cellular level.

Animal Cell Cultures

Since animals share a significant amount of genetic material with humans, they can also be valuable for research. The use of animals in research is designed to help diagnose and treat diseases that affect both animals and humans. Chimpanzees, for example, share 99% of NDA with humans and mice also share a significant amount. Mice have a short life span so researchers can use harvest cells from several generations of mice to determine how genetic diseases change. Additionally, researchers can easily control the environment around animals which is more difficult to do with humans.

One example of research using animal cell cultures is studying HIV/AIDS. Researchers are still learning how HIV functions by studying its related disease in monkeys. The animal version of the disease is Simian Immunodeficiency Virus although chimpanzees can carry the disease without it being fatal. Researchers will culture cells from the animals, compare it to the HIV that affects humans and use to gain a greater understanding of the disease with a focus on potential treatments.

These are just a few examples of the numerous uses that cell cultures play in research. Both human and animal cell cultures are amazingly valuable for studies and provide a way to understand and treat conditions in a minimally invasive but extremely effective method.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

Research Performed Using Human Biologicals

Healthcare research can be categorized into three main types: research on humans, research on human biological materials and lastly research on personal data. Human biologicals are defined as plasma, IgG protein, serum, whole blood, organs, part of organs, cells, tissues and even components of such material from living and/or dead persons. This means that any physical material from the human body may it be a fluid, protein or even whole blood are considered human biological materials in a sense. Human Materials such as plasma, human fluids, and whole blood are some of collection of human material that can be used in research.

The use of human biological material has raised ethical questions of recent. Some might think that since some of these materials are no longer part of a body like deficient plasma, thus do not present any problem. That is not usually the case. Ethical issues arise because these are human materials implying a connection with someone. Some might claim ownership of “their” material and thus have the right to decide for them. Others have interests in safeguarding human materials. These principal issues relate to the possibility of identifying the individuals.

With the help of modern biotechnological methods, it is possible to trace back to the individuals provided that the individualizing characteristics are not removed from the human material. This, however, can create problems for the individuals. For example, if blood tests conducted show a genetic disposition to a particular disease and such information is not handled properly by rules on confidentiality thus violating privacy of the individual donor.

A research biobank is a collection of the human biologicals that are used in a research project or that will be used by researchers in future research projects. They are provided for medical tests, diagnostics, and treatment. The collection, storage, and processing of these human materials in the biobank should be carried in an ethically responsible manner. Privacy is given priority with regards to principles of human dignity and human right.

The use of human biologicals is crucial for health-related purposes such as diagnostics, treatment, and even teaching purpose. Therefore, it is important the use of these materials should be done in a responsible, ethical manner. The use of these human biological should be in accordance to rules and laws such as the Health Research Act and the Treatment BioBank Act. The use of human biologicals in medical and healthcare research should respect human rights and human dignity and should never discriminate the person from whom the biological materials originate.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

Animal Biologicals Collection for Research Purposes

Whole blood, serum, plasma, red blood cells, hormones, body fluids, IgG proteins, glands, organs, and tissues form part of animal biologics that are used for research purposes. They are collected in order to make sure that they are free from any kind of contamination. The factors that determine whether the collected animal biologicals are of high quality are the animal source, the process of collection and their storage.

The animals that are free from antibiotics and parasites are used for collecting biologicals. It is ensured that the water and food given to these animals are certified and free from any kind of contamination. The mere absence of diseases is not enough; the animals must be healthy in all respects. Biologicals are never sourced from diseased or sick animals. Further, only antibiotics certified by a veterinarian are administered to the animals. In addition, biologicals are collected only after 21 days following the administration of antibiotics. This is because antibiotic contamination tends to skew results and limit the use of the biologicals. Parasitic contamination, on the other hand, affects the tissue samples’ integrity.

The biologicals are collected when the animal is not experiencing any kind of stress. This is because stress impacts the sample quality. For certain specific studies related to endocrine disease, cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer’s, biologicals are collected from genetically modified or pregnant animals. It is ensured that the samples are collected causing least pain to the animal.

Research regulations stipulate that aseptic conditions are to be maintained during the process of collection of samples. They include the restraint of animals, collection site disinfection, and use of proper equipment. The collection site is shaved and then disinfected using 70 percent alcohol prior to and after blood sample collection. Disposable syringes are made use of and the used ones are appropriately disposed of immediately. Biologicals may be collected from abattoirs prior to slaughter or from donor animals in farms.

It is better to use a vacutainer for the collection of blood samples. Anticoagulants are not used when collecting serum for serological analysis. For whole blood sample collection, only specified anti-coagulants (Sodium Heparin, Sodium EDTA, Alsevers Solution, or Sodium Citrate) are used. The properties of different anticoagulants are different and are, therefore, used depending on the laboratory procedures to be carried out.

Tissue harvest is started soon after euthanasia. This is to ensure that there is no bacterial contamination because of intestinal seepage. Organs are observed at the site itself prior to collection of tissue samples. Tissues are preserved using 10 percent buffered formalin. Alternatively, tissues are refrigerated at 40 degrees Celsius for short periods or frozen at -100 degrees Celsius for longer periods.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.